Foods to Avoid

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If you are following the Low-FODMAP diet, you will want to avoid all foods high in FODMAPs.  They include: fructans, galacto-oligosaccharides, lactose, excess fructose and polyols.  If you have already taken hydrogen breath tests and know you can either completely absorb fructose or lactose, you do not have to negate either from your diet, but can as an extra precaution during the elimination phase.

High FODMAP Foods to Avoid


  • Apples (fresh or dried)
  • Applesauce
  • Apricots (fresh or dried)
  • Asian pears
  • Blackberries
  • Boysenberries
  • Cherries
  • Currants
  • Dates
  • Feijoa
  • Figs (fresh or dried)
  • Goji berries (dried)
  • Grapefruit
  • Lychee
  • Mangoes (fresh or dried)
  • Nectarines
  • Peaches (all)
  • Pears (dried or nashi, packham-firm or ripe)
  • Persimmon
  • Pineapple (dried only)
  • Plums
  • Prunes
  • Raisins
  • Sultanas
  • Tamarillo
  • Watermelon


  • Artichokes (Jerusalem, globe)
  • Asparagus (1 spear, moderate)
  • Beetroot
  • Cabbage, savoy
  • Cassava
  • Cauliflower
  • Cho cho
  • Choko
  • Corn, sweet
  • Garlic
  • Karela
  • Leeks
  • Mushroom, button
  • Onions, shallots (all including onion powder)
  • Peas, snow
  • Peas, sugar snap
  • Peas, thawed
  • Scallion, Spring Onion bulbs (only use green tips)
  • Snow peas
  • Sugar snap peas
  • Taro

Legumes, Beans

  • Baked beans
  • Black beans (boiled; 1/4 cup canned is moderate)
  • Bortolotti beans
  • Broad beans
  • Four bean mix
  • Haricot beans
  • Kidney beans
  • Chickpeas
  • Lentils (1/4 red or green boiled is moderate)
  • (lentils or chickpeas are OK as long as they are canned – canning helps to leech out FODMAPs).
  • Red kidney beans
  • Soya beans (boiled)
  • Split peas (boiled)

Vegetarian Substitutes

  • Falafel
  • Lentil burger
  • Mince (containing onion)

Nuts, Seeds

  • Pistachios
  • Cashews


  • Meats containing onion, garlic, onion or garlic powders, dehydrated powders, bread crumbs, dried fruits.
  • Marinades/sauces/gravies when prepared with meats may contain high-FODMAPs

Dairy, Cheese

  • Buttermilk
  • Condensed milk
  • Cream cheese (2 tablespoons, moderate)
  • Creme fraiche
  • Custard
  • Ice cream
  • Kefir

Milk, Dairy

  • Evaporated
  • Regular
  • Full cream
  • Cow/goat
  • Skim

Milk Alternatives

  • Oat
  • Rice
  • Soy (soy beans/sweetened/ unsweetened)

Milk powder (milk solids)


Soft cheeses

  • 2 tablespoons or less


  • Indian
  • Low-fat
  • Regular
  • Flavored
  • Made from cow/goat/sheep’s milk

Breads, Cakes, Flours       

Bread – Made with wheat flour, OR sourdough made with wheat/rye

  • Breadcrumbs
  • Cakes
  • Cookies
  • Croissants
  • Muffins
  • Pastries containing wheat/rye
  • Barley
  • Bulgur
  • Chickpea flour (in small amounts only)
  • Couscous
  • Durum
  • Lentil flour (in small amounts)
  • Multigrain flour
  • Pea flour (in small amounts)
  • Rye
  • Semolina
  • Soy flour (in small amounts)
  • Triticale
  • Wheat bran
  • Wheat flour
  • Wheat germ

Pastas, Cereals

  • Noodles
  • Pasta
  • Gnocchi
  • Wheat-based – Multi-grain breakfast cereaL OR Muesli


  • Agave nectar
  • Honey
  • High fructose corn syrup
  • Corn syrup solids
  • Fructose
  • Pear juice
  • Fruit juice concentrate

Sugar alcohols

  • Isomalt
  • Maltitol
  • Mannitol
  • Sorbitol
  • Xylitol


Many condiments are made with FODMAPs, but you can make your own at home! Always read ingredient labels for any condiments you purchase:

  • Chutneys
  • Gravies
  • Chicken, vegetable, beef stock
  • Vegetable and beef bouillon cubes
  • Dressings
  • Sauces
  • Brand-made relishes
  • Oil-based sauces and condiments

Drinks, Juices

  • More than a 1/2 cup of any fruit juice
  • Apple
  • Apple and Raspberry cordial
  • Pear
  • Tropical and mango juices


  • 98% reconstituted
  • 99% blend
  • Orange cordials
  • Chicory-based coffee substitutes
  • Espresso decaf or regular w/cow’s or soy milk
  • Instant decaf or regular w/cow’s or soy milk
  • Fennel tea
  • Chamomile tea

Chai tea

  • Strong
  • Weak with added soy milk, moderate

Herbal tea

  • Strong
  • Weak, moderate

Oolong tea

  • Strong
  • Weak
  • Coconut water 250 ml (100ml is low)
  • Carob powder (for drinking)
  • Rum
  • Sweet wine

Diet, Sugar-free, Low Carb

Label warnings that say “Excess consumption may have a laxative effect.”

  • Avoid sorbitol
  • Mannitol
  • Maltitol
  • Xylitol
  • Polydextrose
  • isomalt or any gums
  • Mints
  • Candy
  • Desserts

and other products containing polyol additives as artificial sweeteners

Here is a breakdown of which foods are high in fructose, polyols and lactose:

  • Excess Free Fructose = EFF
  • High-Polyol Foods = HPF
  • High-Lactose Foods = HLF


Apples or applesauce, apricots, Asian pears, blackberries, boysenberries, cherries, figs, mangoes, nectarines, peaches, pears, persimmon, plums, prunes, tamarillo, watermelon, white peaches

  • EFF – Apples, Asian pears, boysenberries, cherries, figs, mangoes, pears, tamarillo, watermelon
  • HPF – Apples, apricots, Asian pears, blackberries, nectarines, peaches, pears, plums, prunes, watermelon


Artichokes (all), asparagus, cauliflower, garlic, leeks, mushrooms, onions (all onions including onion powder), scallions (only the green tips), shallots, snow peas, sugar snap peas, legume beans (eg. baked beans, kidney beans, bortolotti beans), lentils, chickpeas.

  • EFF – Artichokes, asparagus, sugar snap peas
  • HPF – Cauliflower, mushrooms, snow peas

*Learn more about all legumes and serving sizes by reading this post Low-FODMAP Servings for Legumes


If you do not malabsorb lactose then you do not need to restrict these foods.  Ask your dietitian about testing for lactose malabsorption.

All HLF – Ice cream, regular milk, goat’s or sheep’s milk, yogurt (made from cow, goat or sheep’s milk), milk powder (milk solids), pudding, evaporated milk, sweetened condensed milk and soft cheeses (amounts greater than 1/2 C) -cottage cheese, cream cheese, creme fraiche, mascarpone, ricotta.


All breads that are not gluten-free, bread crumbs, cookies, cakes, croissants, muffins, pastries containing wheat and rye.  Barley, bulgur, chickpea flour (in small amounts only), couscous, durum, lentil flour (in small amounts), multigrain flour, pea flour (in small amounts), rye, semolina, soy flour (in small amounts), triticale, wheat bran, wheat flour, wheat germ.  Stay away from sourdough made with high FODMAP flours (such as wheat and rye).


Noodles, pasta, gnocchi.  Wheat-based and multi-grain breakfast cereals, muesli.


Stay clear of meats that contain HIGH FODMAP ingredients like onion powders, garlic, dehydrated powders and bread crumbs, or high amounts of FODMAP cheese and dried fruits.  Many times marinades, sauces/gravies when prepared with meats contain HIGH FODMAPs.


Pistachios, cashews – all other nuts and seeds are fair game.  Almonds (up to 10),  Hazelnuts (up to 10), one handful of all other nuts and seeds or 2 TB of nut or seed butters.


Agave nectar, honey, sugar alcohols like sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol and xylitol; high fructose corn syrup, corn syrup solids, fructose, pear juice, fruit juice concentrate.

  • EFF – Agave nectar, high-fructose corn syrup, fructose, fruit juice concentrate, pear juice, honey
  • HPF – sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol and xylitol, polydextrose, isomalt


Chutneys, gravies made with onion, chicken, vegetable and beef stock bouillon cubes, dressings, sauces, brand-made relishes.  Oil-based sauces and condiments (such as salad dressings and aioli) may contain high FODMAP ingredients such as garlic.


  • More than a 1/2 C of any fruit juice; apple, pear, tropical and mango juices; orange 98% reconstituted or 99% blend
  • Chicory-based coffee substitutes; espresso decaf or regular with cow’s or soy milk, instant decaf or regular with cow’s or soy milk
  • Fennel tea, chamomile tea, chai tea (strong; weak with added soy milk is MODERATE), herbal tea (strong; weak is MODERATE), oolong tea (strong or weak).
  • Apple, raspberry, orange cordials
  • Coconut water 250 ml (100ml is LOW)
  • Carob powder
  • Rum, sweet wine


All HPF – Label warnings that say “Excess consumption may have a laxative effect.”  Avoid sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol, xylitol, polydextrose, isomalt or any gums, mints, candy, desserts, and other products containing polyol additives as artificial sweeteners.

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